An introduction to economic and ore geology



Principles: terms and introductory definitions



Classification of ore deposits and reserve calculation

Geological methods in ore exploration

Geophysical methods in ore exploration

Geochemical methods in ore exploration

Exploitation and mineral processing techniques

Outline of raw material supply and consumption in Germany


Mineralogy, geochemistry of metallic deposits:


-         Chromium

-         Titanium

-         Vanadium

-         Nickel

-         Cobalt

-         Platinum Group Elements (PGE)

-         Iron

-         Manganese

-         Copper

-         Molybdenum

-         Tin –Tungsten

-         Niobium-Tantalum-Scandium

-         Beryllium-Lithium-Cesium

-         Lead –Zinc-Silver (Germanium -Indium-Cadmium-Bismuth)

-         Magnesium-Calcium

-         Aluminium-Gallium (plus bauxite and emery)

-         Gold

-         Antimony-Arsenic-Thallium

-         Mercury

-         Rare Earth Elements (REE)

-         Uranium-Thorium


Mineralogy, geochemistry of non-metallic deposits:


Non-metallic and construction raw materials – An overview

Exploration, exploitation and processing of non-metallic and construction raw materials

Conflict of use - economic geology vs. environmental geology (“The E & E issue”)

-         Sand and sandstones (aggregates)

-         Siliceous raw materials (excluding aggregates)

-         Clay minerals/ phyllosilicates and claystones (from allophane to talc)

-         Carbonate rocks

-         Salt minerals (chlorides and bromides)

-         Nitrogen and iodine minerals

-         Sulfates (Ca sulfates and aluminium-phosphate-sulfate minerals)

-         Sulfur

-         Fluorine minerals

-         Barium minerals

-         Strontium minerals

-         Phosphates

-         Boron minerals

-         Volcaniclastic rocks

-         Zeolites

-         Graphite and diamonds

-         Feldspar and nepheline syenites

-         Alumo-, calcium and magnesium silicates

-         Asbestos

-         Zirconium


 (gemstones and gem-quality minerals are dealt with in their respective commodity groups)


Lecture course

Ore microscopy

-         Chromite

-         Magnetite-titanomagnetite-ilmenite-rutile-hematite-martite

-         Goethite-lepidocrocite-siderite

-         Pyrite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-marcasite

-         Polianite-pyrolusite-manganite-hausmannite

-         Rammelsbergite-skutterudite-safflorite-niccolite-millerite-linnaeite s.s.s.

-         Galena-sphalerite-wurtzite-chalcopyrite-chalcocite-covellite-digenite-bornite-cerussite

-         Bournonite-boulangerite-falhlore (tetrahedrite-tennantite s.s.s.)

-         Pyrargyrite-teallite-cassiterite-wolframite

-         Zinkite

-         Stibnite-breithauptite-arsenopyrite-gold-cobaltite

-         Uraninite/ pitchblende


Field exercise

Mapping of mineralizations and their wall rocks in underground (e.g. vein-type fluorite deposit) and opencast mines (e.g. contactmetasomatic soapstone deposit) to enhance skill and practical experience of undergraduate students


Field seminar

Field trips to mines and quarries in Northern Bavaria, Slovenia and Austria aimed at familiarizing students with the regional economic geology and petrography of deposits worked for industrial minerals and ore minerals